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Past Participle Formation of Irregular Verbs

The past participle is used to express:

a)      The result of an action.  For example, He escrito un libro. (I have written a book.)

b)      To serve as an adjective.  For example, Veo la ventana abierta. (I see the open window.)

·         Some –er and –ir verbs are stem-changing verbs. The most common stem-changing past participles are:

Spanish

English

Spanish Conjugation

English Conjugation

Abrir

To open

Abierto

Opened

Cubrir

To cover

Cubierto

Covered

Decir

To tell

Dicho

Told

Describir

To describe

Descrito

Described

Escribir

To write

Escrito

Written

Freír

To fry

Frito

Fried

Hacer

To do, make

Hecho

Made

Ir

To go

Ido

Gone

Morir

To die

Muerto

Died

Poner

To put

Puesto

Put

Resolver

To resolve

Resuelto

Resolved

Romper

To break

Roto

Broken

Ser

To be

Sido

Been

Ver

To see

Visto

Seen

Volver

To return

Vuelto

Returned

 

·         When there is a vowel before the ending, accent the i in –ido. The most common accented past participles are:

Spanish

English

Spanish Conjugation

English Conjugation

Caer

To fall

Caído

Fallen

Creer

To believe

Creído

Believed

Huir

To flee

Huído

Fled

Leer

To read

Leído

Read

Oír

To hear

Oído

Heard

Reír

To laugh

Reído

Laughed

Traer

To bring

Traído

Brought